History of Rodeo

Rodeo, Ranch, Bucking, Cowboy, Western

Williamson County Wildlife Removal can be a really exciting event for a family or a group of people to go and observe. The rodeo’s history is interesting and full of small competitions that pitted cowboy crews against each other in various ways.
The beginning of these competitions began in the 1700’s with the Spaniards and their ranch hands called vaqueros. These ranches were spread out over what’s now, the American southwest, when Spain possessed the land. There were several events in which the ranch hands could compete. The early rodeos also had events such as horse breaking, which could become very dangerous if one was not careful, herding, which turned into a bigger competition as the ways of the cowboy became more popular, and branding the animals. In the 1800’s, cattle drives were a massive part of cowboy life, with trails like the Chism, the Goodnight-Loving, and the Santa Fe were ways to get the cows from the southwestern parts of the United States to the eastern areas of america. At the end of the trails, the cowboys who needed to blow off the stress of the drive frequently held competitions between crews to see who was the best. This would eventually develop into an entertainment form for people of the frontier cities, like Prescott, Arizona or Cheyenne, Wyoming. They used lots of the events mentioned above, which gave birth to the modern rodeos of now.
The modern rodeo is governed by the rules and regulations put forth by IGRA. Its rule book can be found online and covers every aspect of rodeo life from institution requirements to professional behaviour in the arena and other areas where the rodeo is being held. One of the main issues with the animals is the way the rodeo hands get the animals to buck so much. This happens because the animals are made to wear a flank strap that binds the testicles. The 8 second rule was established for the safety of the animals, largely because the animal gets fatigued and the adrenaline stops flowing just as much. It also can help keep the creature wild and unbroken, so that it may perform in other rodeos.
The security of the cowboy is almost secondary to the protection of the animals. Horrible injuries and death occur every year from trampling or from being thrown into the fence that separates the audience from the arena. If that is the sport for you, make certain you have the correct training and some type of protection to your upper chest and abdominal area. This is the area where accidents occur the most.

The WASP 94 system

Sun, Planet, Galaxy, Space, Red, Star

Hot Jupiter exoplanets are huge gas-giant worlds akin to our own Solar System’s Jupiter. Unlike our Jupiter, however, hot Jupiters don’t live in the cooler outer regions of their planetary systems, but rather hug their searing-hot, fiery, glaring parent celebrities quickly and close in”roasting” orbits. In September 2014, a group of planet-hunting astronomers announced their discovery of yet another bizarre alien planetary system, in which a fascinating duo of Jupiter-sized exoplanets are observed–every orbiting a distinct leading twin of a binary-star system.

The majority of the known exoplanets circle solitary stars, like our own lonely Sun. But many stars are members of binary systems–twin stars that were born from the exact natal cloud of dust and gas. Now, for the first time, two twin stars composing a binary system are both seen to sponsor a sexy Jupiter exoplanet.

The bizarre discoveries, circling the stellar sisters WASP-94A and WASP-94B, were made by a team of British, Belgian, and Swiss astronomers.

A new survey, known as the WASP-South survey, led by astronomers from Keele University in Staffordshire, UK, found small dips in the light emanating from WASP-94A, indicating a planet like Jupiter was passing in front of (transiting) the fiery, brilliant surface of its parent-star. Swiss astronomers then demonstrated the presence of planets circling both WASP-94A and then its twin stellar sister WASP-94B. Dr. Marion Neveu-VanMalle of Geneva University in Switzerland, who wrote the statement paper, commented at a September 30, 2014 University of Keele Press Release that”We observed the other star by accident, and found a planet around that one too!”

Hot Jupiters hug their stellar parents carefully, circling them in hellish orbits–with a”year” lasting only a couple of days. However, hot Jupiters are in fact rare denizens of the planetary zoo–thus making it extremely improbable that two hot Jupiters would be spotted by chance, inhabiting the identical stellar system. Maybe WASP-94 is unique, and just happens to have the correct conditions for giving birth to these rare sexy Jupiter exoplanets? If this turns out to be true, WASP-94 might be a crucial method for understanding why hot Jupiters somehow manage to circle their leading parents in such fast, close, and”roasting” orbits.

The presence of these enormous, gaseous Jupiter-like exoplanets, orbiting so close to their stars, has presented a long-standing mystery. This is because gas-giant planets cannot be born hugging their parent-stars–it is much too hot there for them to form.

The very first exoplanet to be discovered orbiting a main-sequence (hydrogen burning) Sun-like celebrity proved to be a hot Jupiter. This discovery shocked planet-hunting astronomers who did not think that such close-in, giant, gaseous worlds could exist. This puzzle has plagued the planetary science community for the last twenty years.

An exoplanet is an alien world that doesn’t orbit our Solar System’s Sun, but rather circles a distant, different star, stellar remnant, or brown dwarf (failed star). As of September 29, 2014, more than 1800 exoplanets have been detected–with 1822 planets dwelling in 1137 planetary systems, including 467 multiple planetary systems. In addition, you will find free-floating”orphan” planets that are not gravitationally bound to any star in any way, but float through interstellar space, tragically bereft of the companionship of a stellar parent or planetary siblings of their own. After, these gloomy planetary”orphans” were part of a system, but they were likely cruelly evicted from the gravitational bullying of sister planets which hurled them in the cold, dark space between stars.

The highly effective Kepler Space Telescope has spotted a few thousand potential exoplanets, of which about 11% might prove to be false-positives. Planetary scientists estimate that there are likely, in the very least, 1 planet on average per celebrity dwelling in our starlit, spiral Milky Way Galaxy. Maybe 1 in 5 stars like our own Sun sport an”Earth-sized” planet in the habitable zone. The habitable zone surrounding a star is that comfortable”Goldilocks” region where the temperatures are”just right” for water to exist in its life-sustaining liquid stage. Where liquid water exists, Bat Poop as we understand it can also possibly exist.

Even though the discovery of so many alien worlds has become almost commonplace–“business as usual” for planet-hunting astronomers–that has not always been the case. In actuality, the hunt for planets beyond our own Solar System historically been shown to be a rather frustrating, difficult, and long pursuit. Finally, back in 1992, the very first batch of eccentric exoplanets were successfully seen in orbit around a compact, small, wildly spinning stellar relic known as a pulsar. Dr. Alexander Wolszczan of Pennsylvania State University, after carefully analyzing radio emissions coming from a compact millisecond pulsar, called PSR B1257+12, determined that it was being circled by several very bizarre planets. A pulsar is a small oddball of about 12 miles, therefore, in diameter. It is actually the collapsed core of what was once a enormous main-sequence star that, after having burnt its mandatory supply of hydrogen gas, blew itself to smithereens in the fiery anger of a supernova blast.

The historical discovery was made by Dr. Michel Mayor and Dr. Didier Queloz of Switzerland’s Geneva Observatory.

This hot-Jupiter world, that clung closely to its searing-hot parent star, was the first of its baffling type to bewilder astronomers. 51 Peg b, which orbits its star 51 Pegasi every 4.2 days, is a mere 4,300,000 miles from its stellar parent. However, the existing theories of planet formation with that era indicated that giant Jupiter-like planets could only be born at substantially greater distances from their stars. So, what was the enormous, gaseous 51 Peg b doing orbiting its star in such a close-in orbit?

51 Peg b proved to be only the tip of the iceberg–it was the first discovery of an entirely new and unforeseen class of exoplanets. Ever since the discovery of 51 Peg b twenty years back, many other hot Jupiters have been discovered by planet-hunting astronomers looking for distant worlds beyond our own Sun’s family.

New theories were invented to describe hot Jupiters. Some astronomers thought that these”roasters” were basically huge molten rocks; while others suggested that they were gas-giant planets which were really born 100 times further away from their stars–and were shot back towards their parent-star as a result of near-collisions with other sister planets, or maybe even a companion star of their very own stellar parent.

One theory suggests that hot Jupiters are born at a distance like Jupiter’s average distance from our Sun, then gradually lose energy as a result of interactions with the disc of gas and dust (protoplanetary accretion disc ) where they had formed. The newborn giant planet, therefore, spirals to the warm inner regions of its planetary system from its more distant birthplace.

Hot Jupiters may be tragedies in the making, doomed to crash into a fiery death within the raging furnaces of their seething-hot parent-stars. Until that time, however, these unfortunate”roasters” orbit their stars fast and close, in their hell-like orbits.

Hot Jupiter planets have to be born much further out in their systems, where the temperatures are sufficiently cold for ices to freeze out of the protoplanetary disc swirling around the young star–thus forming a new baby world. Something must then occur that moves the planet into a close-in,”roasting” orbit, and one possible mechanism is an interaction with another sister planet or star. Spotting sexy Jupiter planets circling around two sister celebrities composing a binary pair might permit astronomers to study the still-mysterious procedures that move the hot Jupiters inward.

The two stars are rather bright, making it effortless to study their planets, so WASP-94 could be used to detect the compositions of the atmospheres of the exoplanets.”

The WASP survey is the most prosperous hunt for hot Jupiter exoplanets which transit–or float in front of–the glaring face of the parent-stars. The WASP-South survey instrument searches the sky every clear night, scanning literally thousands and thousands of sparkling stars for transits.

Neptune Facts

Neptune, Solar System, Planet, Astronomy

Neptune is the eighth planet in our Solar System. It’s positioned between Uranus and Pluto, and is sometimes called the Blue Giant. The planet is nearly 49,500 km in diameter, which makes it nearly 4 times the size of our planet, Earth. Also, Neptune is situated around 4.4 billion kilometers from Earth, and therefore, it’s not visible to naked eyes. Even using binoculars, you won’t have the ability to see the planet clearly.

Here are some fascinating facts about Neptune:

• Neptune was observed by several astronomers from early times. Even the great Galileo observed Neptune, but didn’t realize that he was looking at a world. In early times, the telescopes weren’t powerful enough to assist the researchers and astronomers discern planets. When Neptune was seen, the astronomers couldn’t see the disc shape of Earth.

• The world was detected through mathematical calculations. In accordance with the calculations, it was estimated that Neptune was one billion kilometers further from Sun compared to Uranus.

He also has the same results as the British astronomer.

• The discovery of Neptune is credited to the British astronomer as well as the French astronomer.

• The heart of the planet consists of iron, nickel and other silicates. While the mantle of Neptune is made up of water, methane, ammonia and other chemical compounds. The mantle of the planet is

• The atmosphere of Neptune is made up of 80 percent hydrogen, 19 percent helium, and 1 percent of ammonia, water and methane.

• The planet gets its characteristic blue color because methane present in its atmosphere absorbs the red light from sunlight and then reflects it as blue into space.

• Till today, researchers and astronomers have found thirteen moons revolving around Neptune. It is quite possible there are still more moons waiting to be discovered.

• Voyager 2 was the first spaceship to reach Neptune from the year 1989. It took pictures of the world and through these images, researchers discovered that the world has five rings. These rings are known as Galle, LeVerrier, Lassell, Arago, Animal Removal Near Me and Adams. It’s believed that the rings formed when one of planet’s moons got too close and broke up into countless particles as a result of Neptune’s gravity.

Why We Should Explore Europa

Jupiter Moon, Europa, Icy, Space, Cosmos

Europa is the sixth moon of Jupiter and has been discovered by Galileo in 1610. It is extremely possible that at that time, life has been swimming around in the subsurface ocean Europa almost certainly contains. For all those 400 years, it’s entirely possible that extraterrestrial life has been around, but we just haven’t known it. This is as intriguing a reason as any to go there right now.

The surface of Europa is the smoothest in the entire Solar System, which supports the concept that there is a water ocean beneath it. There are not many craters but one of note is the Pwyll crater, whose bright white appearance again implies the presence of water below the surface. When it comes closer to Jupiter the gravitational pull is raised, which slightly moves the world out, and once it goes further away in its own orbit, Europa returns to its spherical form. This stretching causes the planet to heat up by friction and is its internal source of heat. This enables liquid water to exist on its surface in such a cold part of the Solar System. It is also an excellent example of gravitational energy turning to kinetic energy, which in turn becomes heat energy.

There have been many probes which have visited Mars in the hope of locating present or past life. Yet Mars is a dry, dusty desert of a world. It’s quite unlikely to harbor any sorts of life now, although its odds of having played host to germs in the past is still quite good. However, there is nothing as convincing as a liquid water ocean to hold extraterrestrial life in the present moment. As you read this guide, weird and amazing creatures could be swimming across the deathly cold oceans of Europa, or parked around some hydrothermal vent (as we see in the ocean depths on our own planet Earth). It’s for this reason that we must go to Europa, not over twenty, not over ten, but as soon as possible. A robotic probe could be transmitted within five decades.

A robotic probe would have to carry substantial power on board, maybe by nuclear fission. It would have to melt through the solid ice crust that’s at least ten kilometres thick, and then release a probe which could swim through the cold oceans and transmit data back to earth.

Unfortunately, a plan known as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter was shelved five years ago, and funding cuts have noticed a string of false starts in the search for life on Europa. If we are to find extraterrestrial life anytime soon, this needs to change.

The Planet Venus

Mars, Venus, Planet, Titan

The planet Venus is nearest neighbor of Earth. It took the title from the Greek God called Venus and was also called Evening Star. The planet Venus can be seen after sunset and before sunrise. It is the only planet that orbits .

Venus is named Shukra in the early Hindu astrology. It had been observed by the Babylonians in the ancient 1600BC and was called planet Ishtar, the goddess of love and womanhood.

Venus was known as the wandering star long before the invention of telescope. Phythagoras was the first to discover in the 6th century that the planet was one. He thought that Venus orbited around Earth. Galileo noticed in 17th century that Venus had traits such as the moon.

A Russian genius named Mikhail Lomonosov had discovered the atmosphere of Venus in 1761. Chester Smith Lyman was the first to discover the ring around dark side of Earth. The atmosphere of Venus is quite dense which causes difficulty for scientists who wanted to understand its rotation period.

Venus has some traits which are similar with Earth. Venus contains silicon rocks present on its surface just like Earth. The size and make up is similar to Earth. Moreover, Venus and Earth has the same core that is composed of compact iron residue and the middle of Venus is quite similar to that of Earth. However, its atmosphere is very dense for hosting life. Venus is full of sulfuric acid clouds and the acute heat dries up all bodies of water. Its surface is a lot hotter than Mercury’s. Majority of Venus surface features are inspired from women.

There have been a variety of space probe missions to Venus. The first one was that the Russian Venera 1. The first successful spacecraft that came near Venus was America’s Mariner 2 in 1962. There have been over 20 spacecraft visits to Venus.

New Planets

Planet, Extrasolar, Exoplanet, Cometary

An extrasolar planet is one that is not in our Solar system. According to The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, as of the 19th of June 2009, 353 extrasolar plants were discovered. The rate of discovery is increasing very quickly.

All of the planets so far confirmed happen to be orbiting round stars. Planets not orbiting stars do exist, but discovering them is difficult although at least three possibilities are found.

These are sometimes called free floating planets. (This upper mass limit is to differentiate them from brown dwarf stars, and is roughly the mass below which sustained nuclear fusion takes place.) I would also place a lower limit of mass on what we would think about a Planet.

Naturally, nearly all the planets so far discovered are much bigger than the Earth. This is because bigger things are easier to find, and doesn’t suggest that Earth sized planets are rare. The array of sizes of extrasolar planets discovered suggests that there’ll be a lot of Earth sized planets out there.

In 1992, a possible world (Planet: PSR 1257+12 b) was discovered which is just somewhat more than a fifth of the mass of the planet, so we can expect increasing numbers of small planets to be discovered.

Habitable Zone

For all of us, or similar creatures, to live on a planet it generally needs to be orbiting a star in the fairly narrow region where water can be liquid on at least portion of the planet, at least part of the time. A planet also needs to be large enough to hold a sensible atmosphere.

A world also should not be too big, although there has been plenty of speculation about what type of life could live on gas giants.

Although no Earth sized planets have been found in the habitable zones of other stars, about 30 larger planets have. We can expect there to also be Earth sized planets.

Earth Sized Planets

Maybe we ought to consider what sized world we can live on. One as little as Mars, if it had enough water and was the right distance from it celebrity would do, although this is near the lower limit.

A planet much larger than the Earth might have a tendency to have an uncomfortably significant gravity. However, if it was of lower density which our Earth, it would have a larger diameter and its surface gravity would not be so high. It is probable that Humans could live on some planets with a larger mass than the Earth in addition to a larger surface area for living on.

Habitable Moons

Based of the limited information we have, we can expect that most planets will have moons, and that these are of a huge array of sizes.

The 30 so big planets in the habitable zones of their stars might have Earth sized moons. There is nothing impossible about a very major planet, like lots of the ones found so far, having more than one Earth sized moon.

There could be another class of habitable moon. If a big planet was orbiting farther out than the habitable zone of its star, tidal forces could warm its moons enough to melt water. This warming effect is clear from the moons of Jupiter.

No definite signs of life have been found on any extrasolar planet, but at present our techniques for observing them aren’t good enough to inform. These techniques are rapidly advancing.

We still don’t know if extraterrestrial life exists.

The Blue Moon and Mars

Mars, Sun, Solar System, Space, Universe

A once in a lifetime event for astronomers is always worth waiting for. Even though the Mars opposition occurs once every twenty-six weeks, it may still be regarded as once in a lifetime event if you take into account the last time that a Mars opposition occurred on the exact same night as a blue moon. Planetary resistance is an occurrence that happens once the planet rises as the sun sets. This typically occurs when the Earth is directly between the sun and the planet, causing the planet to follow the same elliptical path as sunlight. Add that the moon will be full twice in the month of January, called a blue moon, then there is much to get excited about. What is the reason for all the excitement?

Most astronomers took the opportunity to simply observe the passing of this phenomenon, while watchmaker David Gill, in 1877, used the opportunity to use precise measurement devices and calculations to calculate the solar parallax simply by observing Mars. This was an amazing astronomic breakthrough as it was responsible for redefining the calculations for finding the distance from the earth to the sun. The parallax has recently been updated with more accurate calculations, but using the same formula that brought David Gill to his conclusion.

With the newest opposition in sight, the eminent return of Mars has prompted much ado. This, however, is not the beginning of the event, which is set to last nearly a week and is marked with the closest the red planet has been to Earth since August of 2003. Mars is really closest to the earth on the 27th of January, and it will slowly ascend upwards as the days progress. If you are wanting to catch a glimpse of this beautiful red surface of this planet at its absolute closest. Brave the cold, or enjoy the balmy summer night if your in the southern hemisphere on the 27th and get your telescope into focus. This will be the best night for optimal viewing of the red planet, as it will gradually diminish in size from the subsequent weeks. Mars will shine at Magnitude -1.28, almost as bright as the brightest star in the sky, Sirus. Don’t delay or you’ll need to wait another twenty-six months for the March of 2012 opposition. However, the next time that the opposition of Mars will occur on the same night as a blue moon depends upon the cycle of the upcoming blue moon.

Not only does the resistance and Blue Moon happen on the same night, Mars is just a hand span (7 degrees of arc) away from the Moon. It is important, then, to record the events of the night to say that you’re there. Perhaps even some Photographs to mark the occasion. For the next time this happens, you children or grandchildren will be the ones to witness it.

To Return or Not to Return

Moon Landing, Lunar Module Eagle

Now, 30 years later, the question presents itself:”Should we return to the moon?”

The answers to this question are diverse, and individuals on all sides are very enthusiastic about how they feel. Some argue that exploration is among the most basic principles about what makes humans great. Without exploration and treading into new waters, progress can’t be made. Others argue for the scientific discoveries that may be made while others assert that we have already been there and should set our sites on other things like Mars.

However, it’s not a”been there, done that” situation. There are still unanswered questions that could be answered should we go back to the moon, which is much more. We don’t even know for certain how the moon was created. It helps us discover the real story behind the creation of not just the Earth and moon, but also of our own solar system.

Who Should Go?

Should a return mission to the moon be a manned mission? Or if a robot be used instead? Manned missions take immense risk at the cost of human life, while unmanned robots come at a huge cost of money.

Funding

However, the issue of cost arises. Those in favor of a return to the moon assert that the costs of going back to the moon are much less than the costs of possibly going to Mars. Yet, in this down market and the government spending at an all time high on additional programs, an individual must wonder and question if spending money on missions to the moon is in the best interest of the country. Some argue that using the present poverty and environmental issues currently plaguing the planet, we need to concentrate on things here, not outside the realm of the planet.

Perhaps if there’s a return to the moon, it will not be done by a government sponsored program or with government funding. Private enterprises could take a major role in returning to the moon.

National Mentality

The general national mentality is an additional factor to take into account. When John F. Kennedy made his speech in the early 1960s, the United States was at a very different place in it’s national mentality than it is today. The early 60s brought a euphoria off of a booming economy and the end of the Korean War and World War II. There was a sense that so much was possible, and people put their sights on distant horizons. However, in the present day, the market is struggling, and we’re obsessed with all the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Conclusion

The topic of returning to the Moon is a complex one. There are many questions which need to be requested in order for us to start to discuss if returning to the Moon is feasible. With the end of the Space Shuttle Program and cuts in funding for NASA, it will be interesting to see what the future holds for space travel.

Any reproductions of this Guide must retain the following:

Should we return to the moon? What benefits do you see from going back to the moon? Do you see any drawbacks?

The Planet Mercury

Mercury, Stars, Sun, Solar System

In our tour of the solar system, we should begin by exploring the innermost planet. A brief distance from the inferno of our sun we find it, hurtling through space at 40 to 60 km per second in its 88 day cycle around the sun. It too is heavily cratered, with no atmosphere (or only a hint of one) to protect its surface or erode indications of previous collisions. The sun as seen from this distance is approximately twice as large as from Earth, and we know this is going to be the most dominant force affecting our trip to this planet.
Now we’ve touched down and we take a quick look around. We know that the surface gravity of Mercury is 38% of Earth’s, so if we weighed 200 pounds before, here we weigh only 76 pounds. Looking up at the sky we see a black, star-speckled skies dominated by the fiery globe of a sun almost three times bigger than we are familiar with. There’s only the faintest trace of an air, and the only way we know it is there is the instrumentation we have with us. It will be totally useless to us. The sun beats down unabated in all its fury, and the temperature hovers around 800 degrees Fahrenheit. If we were on the night side the temperature would drop to -270 degrees. We would never survive here without space suits.

Bending down to inspect the surface we find a layer of dust similar to what astronauts found on the moon. This is the result of billions of years of meteor impacts, as well as the extreme temperature differentials implemented from a hellishly close sun. The processes which shaped this world across the eons were much different than the ones that shaped our home planet.

Around us are the pockmarks of craters, some mountain ranges, and a horizon considerably closer than that which we know at home.

Contrary to what astronomers once thought, there is truly a cycle of days here, but it is much different than anything we are accustomed to. Mercury isn’t tidally locked with the sun, but tidal forces have slowed it to the point where its day is 58 of our times (really it will one day many years from now become locked one side to its enormous neighbor). This means that Mercury’s day is about three quarters as long as its year. This results in some very peculiar observations if we were to stay that long. We would observe the sun snake across the sky very slowly. In certain places on this world we would then see the sun slow and really backtrack a brief distance before continuing its slow march across the sky.

We take one more look around this world. No, Mercury isn’t an enticing place for humans to visit. Maybe one day we’ll have reason to be here, possibly for the rich deposits of iron and other metals or for observational purposes, but this isn’t the day.

Mercury has been know and observed at least since the days of the Sumerians in the 3rd millennium BC. After the Sumerians there’s better documentation from the Babylonian Empire. Records in the 7th century BC refer back to much earlier documents which described observations of Earth. The Babylonians called the planet Nebu, after the messenger of the gods in their mythology. This is an interesting parallel to the later Greek mythology and reference to the innermost planet. The ancient Greeks had two names for the entire world, Apollo observable in the morning and Hermes visible in the evening. They eventually came to understand that these were exactly the identical object, and it was even suggested this early in history that Mercury and Venus orbited the sun.
Early modern astronomy started making observations of Mercury in the early 17th century when Galileo turned into an early telescope to the inner world. A sketchy vision of the planet developed from there, but its proximity to the sun has always made this one of the most difficult members of our solar system to study. It has only been lately with the advent of new imaging techniques that ground-based observation has drastically improved.
And what of research with space probes? This is also laced with technical issues. An application of Newton’s Laws of Motion shows that it takes more rocket fuel to reach an orbit around Mercury than necessary to escape the solar system. Due to this only one spacecraft has visited the world thus far, the Mariner 10.
The Mariner 10 was launched on November 3, 1973 to research both Venus and Mercury. After its study of Venus, the probe made three flybys of Mercury in 1974 and 1975 when it mapped about 45% of the world’s surface. The Mariner 10 circles the sun in its lone orbit around the sun to this day, although its digital devices have long since been destroyed by the sun’s intense radiation.
Our most ambitious Mercury research project to date was begun August 3,2004 with the launch of the Messenger by NASA from Cape Canaveral. After two quick flybys of Venus in 2006 and 2007 the Messenger will finally work its way inward and make three flybys of Mercury in 2008 and 2009. It is carrying high resolution imaging devices, spectrometers to determine the composition of the crust, and magnetometers to study charged particles around Earth.
There is an astronomical event which is of interest to amateurs and professionals alike, but not necessarily for any scientific value. After every couple of centuries there’s an occultation of Mercury and Venus. This occurs when Venus really passes directly in front of Mercury for a couple of minutes. The last one occurred on May 28,1737 and another will occur in 2133.

Structure of Mercury
Much of Mercury’s mass is composed of an iron rich core. Recent theories suggest that this core comprises the majority of the 4879 mile diameter of the planet. This is surrounded by a 350-400 mile thick mantle and finally by a crust some 100 miles thick. Due to Mercury’s slow rotation period, there’s very little tectonic or volcanic action.
There have been a number of theories presented to explain why Mercury is so metal rich, and why its core features such a massive part of the world’s structure. One popular theory is that the world was struck by a large body early in its history and lost most of its outer,”lighter”, mantle. Another theory is that the extreme heat of the early sun vaporized the outer portion of the planet, providing the young Mercury a dense atmosphere of gaseous stone, which was carried away by the massive solar winds of a much more volatile sun. The competing theories to explain the unusually heavy composition of Mercury will be tested by the approaching Messenger mission.

The Future of Mercury and Its Potential Role in Our Own Future
Mercury’s most dominant feature makes it an attractive part of our future: its huge stores of heavy metals, particularly iron. Though its proximity to the sun makes it hard to envision humans living and working there, I can envision automated factories mining its surface and freighters picking up the ore to bring it back for our use.
Mercury will stay pretty much as it is for billions of years to come. As the sun slowly gains in intensity during the next 4 to 5 billion years, the planet’s surface temperature will gradually rise with it. Then a singular moment will arrive as the entire solar system varies with the beginning of the sun’s passage into its next stage. After the sun consumes a critical amount of its hydrogen fuel it will, within a matter of only a few days, enter its red giant phase.
At the point Mercury will be the first of the inner planets to be entirely consumed.

Solar System Facts

Solar System, Planet, Planetary System

The solar system includes the sun, the nearest star to us, and the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, in addition to numerous comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and the interplanetary medium. The nine planets, together with their satellites, revolve around the sun in certain orbits. The planets and the satellites are said to be the members of the solar family or the solar system.

It’s thought that the sun, the center-piece of the solar system, has been born five billion years back, emitting heat and light non-stop, and it’s expected to do so for another five billion years. The sun is the richest repository of electromagnetic energy, in the form of heat and light. The sun contains 99.85 per cent of all of the matter in the solar system. The planets, which were condensed out of the same disk of material that formed the sun, comprise just 0.135 percent of the mass of the solar system.

The four innermost planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars – are called terrestrial planets. All of them have compact, rugged surfaces such as the Earth’s. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are known as the Jovian (Jupiter-like) planets due to their gigantic sizes.

By quantity, nearly all the solar system appears to be an empty void. But, this”vacuum of space” encircles the interplanetary medium containing a variety of kinds of energy, dust, and gas. The stream of gas and charged particles called plasma, mostly protons and electrons, is known as the solar wind. Its speed is about 250 miles (400 km ) per second in the vicinity of the planet’s orbit.

The entire solar system, together with the stars visible on a clear night, orbits the center of our home galaxy known as the Milky Way, which is a spiral disk of 200 billion stars.

Tiger at the Masters

Tiger Woods, Golf, Golfer, Sports

Tiger’s identity is tied to raising the BAR. The what?

How do you compete at the Masters when your identity has been shattered?

Sure Tiger has won 4 Masters Tournaments, and he may actually win his 5th this weekend… we will see. However, his personal life is affected. His identity was revealed. The results that we have all been visiting since last Thanksgiving with Tiger is really a great index of his beliefs. Our results are the comments system to our beliefs (which is our identity).

So that means that what we’re seeing in Tiger’s life recently was really because of beliefs he adopted some time ago. For any reason Tiger’s beliefs had him thinking that he was untouchable as it came to extramarital affairs, and possibly taking illegal growth hormone substances (that’s still speculation).

The thrill of uncertainty, and the importance factor Tiger received from these girls were powerful enough to change his belief system to it is okay to be doing exactly what he was doing. That rush became addicting to himand he kept seeking it out. Who knows what the actual number of women he had affairs with – which doesn’t really matter. What does matter is that his beliefs, and his identity have been shown for the world to see. So what’s next?

From the Dream Bar Cafe system we say that all outcomes are lagging indicators of some-thing else. Your feelings, your thoughts, your actions, and your thinking are considered a leading indicator, which result in forming your Beliefs… hence your identity of yourself.

This is why we place heavy emphasis on raising your own BAR (Belief, Action, Result) cycle. Change one variable and you will see a outcome. Change a few variables, and you’ll see exponential results.

Just how does Tiger get back to adjusting his beliefs? Only by stepping up and moving through the full DREAM BAR CAFE system will he know what Drives him, and what his motives are for doing what he has been doing – revealing his identity.

Do you think he was thinking about them when he let his beliefs denigrate to the level they were at before this all came out? His identity as a Playboy became so strong that nothing else mattered – as it came into the thrill of the chase. Please don’t misunderstand me… I believe that Tiger loves his family, his wife Elin, his two children, his Mother, his Faith in Buddhism, and his competitive golfing career. I am positive of this fact.

What happened was that Tiger slowly chipped away at his belief system that his parents instilled in him from an early age. He started discovering that his life has to be mixed up, and have a bit of uncertainty thrown in. He allowed his beliefs to slide, which resulted in taking risky activities, and so the outcomes which became evident.

Will his game be effected during this weeks Masters Tournament? Probably not. He still has those superb competitive beliefs that he’s the worlds greatest golfer – that should not have changed. This week is also feeding his other individual needs of certainty, doubt, love & significance. So I don’t think you will need to worry about him… he’ll do just fine. This is Tiger’s week to shine in the spotlight and get his individual needs met and his tank full.

Whether you like Tiger or dislike him doesn’t matter. You can now see where and how Tiger’s individuality went astray – by knowing that your thoughts and feelings have an immediate influence on your results. You can now use this in your own life to create the results you choose.

There’s one caveat to look out for with Tiger, and in your life. It is possible to alter an action and get a different result – for a while… however, unless you change your belief, your identity will surely kick-in and you’re going to snap right back to the same person you were before. That’s because you can never exceed what your identity will allow.

Interesting isn’t it? Give it some thought on your life… and increase your BAR.

P.S.. Who will make the coveted Green Jacket? I’d say it’s the individual with the strongest belief in themselves, and the player who understands, and implements the Dream Bar Cafe system finest.

Kursk

Tank T-34 76, World War Ii, Fallen

The German forces were bogged down by the Russian winter, the Russian victory at Stalingrad and then the subsequent spring rain and mud. In the summer of 1943 the Germans had amassed a massive force to attack Russia and regain lost ground. This could lead to the biggest tank battle in history and also lends a dynamic backdrop to this publication.

There are 4 main characters that drive this story. He was wounded in the Battle of Leningrad and is but a shell of his former greatness. The next 3 are from the exact Russian Cossack family. Dimitri Berko, a private driving the T-34 from the Soviet 3rd Mechanized Division. He is commanded by Sergeant Valentin Berko, Dimitri’s son, and Katya Berkovna, Dimitri’s daughter, a night bomber with the famed all-female bomber squadrons of the Red Air Force, so-called the Night Witches by the Germans that they bomb. The 3 primary story lines follow de Vega being assigned to escort the new super panzer of the German Army, the Tiger 1 Panzerkampfwagen VI, through train to the front and assure that the Tigers are delivered intact. He then begins itching for action to command one of the Tiger tanks at the Battle of Kursk. He soon realizes how the Tiger is most successful in battle. With Demitri and boy Valentin in precisely the same T-34 there’s much of the father/son tension along with the tank battles that ensue. The author keeps all entities separate into what seems like 3 different stories revolving around the build up to the tank battle at Kursk. Each character has there own well detailed back stories which are fleshed out through memories, flashbacks and boastful story telling during the lulls in fighting.

The best aspect of this book is the historical accuracy and detail of the Tiger tank and the Battle of Kursk. This book was very close to being non-fiction in the level of detail, but also very engrossing character growth. He’d spent 3 weeks on the battlefields of Kursk in the middle of summer getting a feel for the warmth and sun of the Russian steppes. He also trained in how to derail a train with explosives as the Partisan Russian fighters tried in stopping the shipment of the Tiger tanks in the story. Time was also spent in pouring over video reports from German and Russian tankers’ first hand combat accounts. “Hands on” gear training was given to him ranging from small arms into the tanks in the Aberdeen Ordinance Museum in Maryland and then being driven around in a restored T-34 in Virginia. David L Robbins certainly did his homework for this book and you will feel it when you read it. This is a must read for any Tiger 1 fan and any WW2 fan generally.

Football in the Summer

American Football, Stadium

From the 1995 City to Surf fun run, Australia’s premiere foot race, a 14 kilometer trek through Hyde Park in Central Sydney to the Pacific Ocean, a 19-year-old man suffered a cardiac arrest on the finishing line and later died. 600 people were treated for minor problems and 200 were treated by physiotherapists.
“The people who get into trouble are the highly motivated amateurs who train in the cool of the day and are not prepared for competition”

Dr. Rowley Richards

  • City to Surf Medical Director

It surely does not take a doctor to point out the pains of physical activity in extreme heat. I am sure, at some point in time each and every one of us has over-exerted ourselves in the heat, even if that means a frantic sprint to the evaporating ice cream truck. In fact, it is no secret that soccer players are the best conditioned athletes in the world — because they have to be. Try running for 60 minutes in an open air arena on the equator, or the deserts of northern Africa. Even better, try it with full helmet and pads at a pre-season NFL experience in Phoenix, Arizona in August. It is no wonder the Arizona Cardinals get three of the first four matches of each season on the road.

After this simple human truth, it would follow in football, just as in marathons or any other sporting event, that better conditioned athletes will fare better in extreme heat than lesser conditioned athletes. While oddsmakers take several factors into account when determining pointspreads, it’s fair to say that better teams are better, at least in part, due to superior physical conditioning.

The most successful training camp in the 1998 season, (our evaluation season), concerning attendance and commitment from the players, was that of the Denver Broncos. Fresh off their 1997 Superbowl win, where physical conditioning was the deciding factor in the pit, as Denver’s lightweight but well conditioned O-Line simply dominated Green Bay’s big but relatively out-of-shape D-Line, the Broncos went back to the secret well which had given them the extra edge when it mattered most, and it paid off again.

We’re not surprised when a stronger and better conditioned athlete dominates in the ring, or in a foot race, so why should we be surprised when better conditioned football players win on the soccer field, especially when the elements demand a superior effort. In actuality, that is precisely the reality in today’s NFL, as league parity reduces the gap in talent, it’s intangibles, like physical conditioning, which give some teams an edge on a few days.

The favorite in those 17 games held a 15-2 record straight up, and a 12-4-1 record ATS. In actuality, of the two up fav losses, one was Carolina losing as a house favorite to Atlanta in week 1, but bear in mind, the Falcons went on to play at the Super Bowl that season. Another event, was a 13-7 loss, Tennessee their Nashville debut at Vanderbilt Stadium in week 2 against The Chargers, which looks to be the only true exception to the rule.

Furthermore, the hotter it got, the more widespread the phenomenon became. There were six games in 1998 where the temperature hit as high as 90 degrees at game time. They were;

WEEK 3 – Philadelphia @ Arizona – 99 degrees

WEEK 6 – Chicago @ Arizona – 91 degrees

Now, there are amazing similarities between all six of the above hotties, besides they all hit 90 degrees or greater at match time. Most assuredly, all six matches saw the favorite manage the heat much better than the lesser team of the day and win handily over the underdog. The favorites had a 6-0 ATS mark over the underdogs once the heat was on. In fact, the underdogs in these 6 matches had problems catching more than simply their breath, as not one of the underdogs in any of these games registered over 16 points. In fact, combined, the underdogs in those 6 competitions scored just 57 points, or, 9.5 per game average. The favorites in those 6 matches could take advantage of fatigued defenses, as the favorites combined for a whopping 161 points in these 6 games, compared to just 57 allowed.

Another interesting property of heat is its debilitating effects over time. In other words, how would the heat take its toll on a defense as the game wears on? This is a very intriguing question, and one, which could unlock the door to untold opportunities. Consider the outcomes of the following graph, which is a breakdown of scoring by quarter by both the favorite, underdog and cumulative scoring in the six hot games combined.

Quarter . 1st 2nd . 1st Half . 3rd 4th . Total .

Favorite . 30 41 . 71 . 34 56 .161 .

Underdog . 3 7 . 10 . 21 26 . 57 .

TOTAL . 33 48 . 81 . 55 82 . 218 .

I do not need to tell you the startling implications of the above chart, and what it may mean to half-time lines and totals. The results are astounding. But really, should we be surprised? I guess it really is not rocket science to conclude that a hot game would have a predictable impact on both teams defenses as the game wore on, but sometimes we can’t see the forest for the trees. The favorite continues to dominate a sexy game from cable to cable, but even the superior defense starts to weaken as the match progresses, and points become more plentiful.

It is also not surprising that points are hard to come by in these matches, as teams prefer to pound the line and wear down the defense in favor of sending their receivers on deep jaunts. Under the Total played out in 67% of our 90 degree higher or games, which was consistent with hot games overall, as Under the Total was the result in 67% of games where the game time temperature was 86 degrees or higher.

Difference between teams that practice in the cold and those that don’t

Winter Landscape, Trees, Snow, Nature

Ever wonder why your fingers, toes, ears and other extremities get especially chilly in frigid weather?

The body adjusts to extremely cold weather by adjusting the flow of blood. Crucial organs, such as the liver and heart, get more blood which is redirected away from the extremities, like the hands, feet and ears. Blood vessels in the extremities constrict, nearly shutting off, leaving the skin at higher risk of frostbite.

That is the medical definition, but anyone who’s ever laced on skates in an outdoor rink, hit the slopes, or perhaps engaged in a friendly snowball fight can tell you your motor skills decrease in frigid weather. Throwing a football with numb fingers is not only catchy, but it can be painful. In actuality, playing any position with numb fingers increases the odds of”finger jams”, which is simply when tingling stops you from squeezing the ball the way you normally would and increases the possibility of an injury on impact with the ball or an opposing player. It’s only one of the numerous tiny inconveniences of playing in cold weather. Everything constricts in chilly weather, for example, pigskin, leaving the ball with an entirely different sense – throwing a chilly football is completely different than throwing a warm soccer with an expanded hide.

Playing in the cold is perfected through practice, so teams who are made to practice in the cold are always going to perform better in that situation. Pay particular attention in cold weather games to the quarterback, and his experience in the situation. Teams that practice at the cold mostly include Green Bay, Chicago, Denver, The Giants, Jets, Eagles, Steelers, Bills, Ravens, Patriots, Browns, Bengals, Redskins and to a lesser degree – The Chiefs and Titans. Players who exercise in cold weather changes year to year; Brett Farvre is among the all time best – in almost any weather.

There were 10 regular season games in 1998 (our test season) where the game time temperature was recorded at less than 40 degrees. Those games were;

Week 10 – San Diego @ Denver – 37 levels

Week 16 – Baltimore @ Chicago – 36 levels

Week 16 – Tennessee @ Green Bay – 29 levels – snow

Week 17 – Minnesota @ Tennessee – 35 levels

Week 17 – Detroit @ Baltimore – 39 degrees

Week 17 – Chicago @ Green Bay – 39 degrees

Week 17 – NY Giants @ Philadelphia – 37 levels

Do you know what the 10 coldest matches of this year have in common, other than the fact that they were the 10 coldest games of the year? In each of the 10 games, the favorite won the game, usually by a landslide. In fact, the favorite had an ATS mark of 8-2 in the 10 coldest games of this year.

Not only did the favorites from these cold wars win the match, like their hot air cousins, the favorites dominated. In actuality, of all of the underdogs in those 10 contests, only two did the underdog score over 16 points, Kansas City in their 35-31 loss to Denver, and Tennessee in their 30-22 loss at Green Bay. In the other eight matches, the underdogs scored just 72 points combined, or, nine points per game on average. The favorites scored 263 points combined, for greater than 26 ppg on average. Again, below the TOTAL dominated the sportsbooks in these games, as the Under performed to a tune of 7-2-1 in these 10 games.

It is interesting to note that the NFL was pretty fair in the scheduling of the cold wars, as only San Diego & Tampa Bay were asked to go”out of their element” with respect to playing in cold weather. San Diego was wasted in Denver, managing only 10 points, but Tampa Bay shocked many in a 35-0 rout of the Bengals at Synergy Field in 39 degree weather.

In other words, it certainly appears that favorites in a cold weather game are preferred for good reason. For more check out Indian River Estates Rat Removal

Sikh Artillery

Tsar Cannon, The Kremlin, Moscow, Russia

The Sikh Army was the strongest force faced by the British in India. The Khalsa Fauj acquitted itself creditably in the two Anglo Sikh wars. British historians have alluded to the ability of the Sikh gunners during the conflicts at Mudki and Chillianwala during the two Anglo Sikh wars. The maharaja who dominated the Punjab for 40 years until his demise in 1839 built the artillery of the Khalsa Fauj (Army) to an unprecedented efficacy level. No Indian ruler could match the genius of Ranjit who built up his artillery with the support of foreign advisors -largely French. The period from 1801 to 1839 marked the development of the Sikh army from a semi feudal and cluttered force to an efficient fighting machine which could hold its own against the best European armies.

One of the advisors hired by Ranjit Singh that the Frenchman General Jean Francois Allard, General Paola Evitable who was an Italian and Claude August Court held sway. Out of these Court set about organizing the artillery. He joined the Maharajas service in 1827 and married a local Sikh girl. He began the training of the gunners and made the organization of the batteries and guns.In fact he raised the level of efficacy of the Khalsa army at par with the western powers.The foundries of Maharaja Ranjit Singh were adapted by Court to generate high quality guns and howitzers. In this he was helped by local gun smith Sardar Lahina Singh Majithia.

It is worthwhile to remember that if the first shell was created at the Lahore foundry that the Maharaja bestowed a prize of Rs 30,000 on Court. Subsequently fuses for the guns were manufactured there. His impact on the Artillery efficacy bore fruit later as during the wars with the British, Sikh guns made the British pay a hefty price by their deadly salvos.

The Sikh artillery really came into its own only after the entrance of the European advisors of Ranjit Singh. This artillery was to differentiate itself in the battles of the North West frontier and later the British.The most deadly part of the Sikh army were the guns manufactured at the maharajas foundries in Lahore. These guns added teeth to the khalsa (Sikh) army which makes it into a formidable force. Ranjit Singh had about 35 artillery pieces when he started his reign in 1801. However by the time of the first Anglo-Sikh warfare in 1845 the Sikhs could marshal nearly 250 firearms.

Ranjit Singh must take credit for the evolution of the artillery in his military. Right from 1807 he had been seized with the thought of manufacturing his own cannons. In another 2 years mortars were produced and Ranjit instructed his chief scientist Mian Qadir Bakhsh a Muslim, to study the British guns and create similar copies. Ranjit also on the advice of his French generals set up the horse drawn artillery. By 1830 Ranjit could have a look at his gunnery division and appreciate the fact he had over 100 horse drawn artillery pieces.

The Sikh soon mounted an invasion of the North West. In conflicts with the Pathans and the Afghans from the Frontier region the Sikh Army made significant use of Artillery. The Battle of Jamrud and capture of the fort was in no way possible without the unerring aim of the Sikh gunners. Their lethal fire caused heavy casualties among the Afghans.
When Maharaja died in 1839 he left behind a powerful military force equipped with professional artillery. But the Sikh leadership dedicated hara-kiri by attacking the British with whom Ranjit had a treaty of peace. The Sikh army aided by the artillery could have carried the day but poor generalship and a desire to let the British win by the traitorous Sikh Prime Minister Gulab Singh and his coterie led to the defeat of the Sikhs.

The battles at Mudki and Chillianwale will forever be etched in memory of the glorious effect of the Sikh artillery while the sun was setting on the Sikh Kingdom. A lot of guns were seized by the British and were paraded at Calcutta after the second Sikh war. Many were melted down at their foundry in Cossipore. But with the passage of time only a couple of artillery pieces can be found mostly in the UK and the Lahore Museum.

A day that will live in infamy

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Evening, Dusk

Each year more and more people forget Pearl Harbor, and there are fewer statements in the news about it. Within another decade very few will still be alive, who were there to remind us and their recollections will not be so good anyway. Most likely, it is going to be us who reminds them of the fateful day and what exactly happened.

We must not allow our history perish and we should not forget the perils of warfare or the day at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. It’s up to each one of us to remember and read up on this December 7, 1941 and we shouldn’t let that memory die. It is essential that we make sure it is taught in schools, as it’s paramount that we protect all we are and all we have built from potential future threats.

Look and Listen up because this is important. Each year a growing number of people forget about Pearl Harbor and quite honestly, that is unacceptable and it’s a spit in the face of our ancestors who built this wonderful nation. We cannot allow that to happen. It is each and everyone’s responsibility to read up on this, know your background and pass this information down.

Have a conversation with your family about this December 7th and discuss how different the world is and how it’s also much the same. We were attacked on 9-11 because we let our guard down and when we failed to protect our great nation we did so at the expense of the people who died on September 11, 2001. Think about it.

Find out More about Pearl Harbor Day:

Normandy

Omaha, Beach, World War Ii, German

We are going to have peace of mind, even if we must fight for it”- General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

The shortest way home is through Berlin and Tokyo. And once we get to Berlin, I am personally going to shoot that paper hanging son-of-a-b Hitler. General George S. Patton (just before the Normandy Invasion) June 5th 1944

In the summertime in 1944, Hitler’s Wehrmacht (armed forces) nevertheless were still very much in command of each of the lands the Germans had fought over and won during their Blitzkrieg campaign of 1941- 1943. The majority of the whole regionl of Europe was still in the stranglehold of Hitler’s clutches, and the allies were in a desperate place to somehow loosen his grip on Europe by any means necessary. A year earlier that summer of 1944, General Dwight D. Eisenhower was commissioned by Franklin Roosevelt to think of a grand military plan to invade the European stronghold that the German army were holding loyal to. The first proposal for the invasion was called”Operation Roundup”, and then changed to”Operation Sledgehammer” a few months later. The invasion was put on hold until May of 1944 through the insistence of Joseph Stalin and FDR against the protestations of Winston Churchill who desired to proceed with Eisenhower’s strategy in August of 1943. The turning point that finally changed Churchill’s mind was the agreement that Stalin would assist the allies by mounting an offensive against Hitler in eastern Europe in the exact same time that the US Army and Marines invaded Normandy, which might help deliver a deadly two prong attack against Germany’s military.

On June 1st of 1944, the brand new campaign title for the invasion of Normandy has been changed for the final time. Operation Overlord. Was the new title for what could become the largest sea borne invasion that the world had ever seen, with over 3 million allied troops taking action against the Germans and more than 6900 sea vessels bringing the allied troops into the sandy beach at Normandy. In the late hours of June 5th, massive air strikes and bombardments began waking up all the sleeping French citizens and German troops stationed near Omaha Beach. A French woman who lived in a chateau overlooking the beach gives us a very descriptive first-hand account of what happened that night. “We are deafened by the airplanes, making a never-ending round, very low; of course what I believed were German planes are quite simply English ones, protecting the landing. Coming from the sea, a compact artificial cloud; its menacing and begins to become alarming; the first hiss over our minds. I feel cold.”

A complete two-thirds of the first bombardments were dropped outside the actual invasion area to convince the German army the sea landings would be made in the neighborhood of the Seine, as opposed to at Omaha Beach. Due to decoded messages that the allies were able to obtain from a cadre of American spies, the US Army knew where the Germans would attempt any counterattack measures against the invasion. During that same night of June 5th, 822 aircraft carrying hundreds of parachuted military personnel began dropping off the soldiers for their designated landing zones near Normandy. The American 82nd and 101st airborne divisions did the best possible job possible and secured their objectives of taking out German machine gun turrets and blowing 75 military tanks and vehicles behind enemy lines.

The full-scale invasion began in earnest at 6:30 AM on June 6th, when the more than 11,000 boats and ships came near shore and the greater than 80000 troops started swarming from their landing vehicles to begin the fiery attack on the German forces waiting to reign down machine gun fire on the American soldiers. The Germans were lurking in their hiding places from the embankments in the rocky mountains of Normandy overlooking the beach front. As the troops waded ashore at Omaha beach, the Germans let loose with Hell’s fury, cutting down almost two-thirds of the brave soldiers that were first to arrive. The 352nd division of the German army struck the US 1st division with complete wrath, taking the lives of over 2,000 American GI’s. The American campaign was in trouble in this horrible stage of the invasion, and the US military intelligence required to think of a counter plan shortly, or the entire mission will be in shambles.

If Hitler had begun to unleash his armored division of Panzer tanks against the allies for a full counter attack on that dreadful morning of June 6th, Operation Overload would really have been a complete failure. But because Hitler was reluctant to take a bet and dispatch the hundreds of tanks and other military armored vehicles to carry out the allied forces, he waited too late to make the most of their allies misfortunes on Omaha beach. By the time it took HItler to finally start sending his Panzer division into Normandy, the American military had created a new strategy of attack employing the British forces to invade the region of the strongest German stronghold at Périers-sur-le-Dan near the primary battle lines behind the Normandy beach front.

The French woman that had witnessed the initial air strikes against the Germans, also witnessed the British tanks rolling in from the southeast to attack the German Panzer division at Périers-sur-le-Dan. She describes the English invasion and the British soldiers in particular with terrific clarity. “The English tanks are silhouetted from time to time on the street above Periers. Grand impassioned exchanges on the road with the people from the farm; we’re all stupefied by the suddenness of events. I inform him that he should still have comrades at the guns, because we could still listen to the battery firing. You feel that these two men are lost, disorientated, gloomy. Later, nearly night, I see them again, their faces deliberately blackened with charcoal, crossing the playground. What will be their fate? How many of them are still in the area, hiding and watching?”

Longwood Rat Removal antitank gunners took out the largest German tank divisions, which resulted in paralyzing any counter attack the Germans could instigate against the allies. So by the night of June 6th, leading to the early morning hours of June 7th, the allies were enjoying a military victory that proved they were more than ready to beat the Germans back to their homeland and take back Europe for its allies.

During the constant battles which were taking place between June 8th and June 13th. The allies had destroyed nearly 1500 German aircraft and armored tanks and taken more than 7500 German lives. But on June 13th,at a little village area called Villers-Bocage, the British armored division lost more than 40 British tanks and endured 200 casualties against a well-equipped German tank division. A large-scale infantry offensive west of Caen, called Operation Epsom, was also defeated on June 25-29, which cast a massive shadow of doubt on the final success of Operation Overlord. The only expect the allies had at the time was the fact that the largest German military leaders had begun to fall victim to a sudden collection of fatalities involving suicides and bombing attempts on many members of their high command.

The complete disarray of German’s military leadership resulted in huge mistakes in Germany’s counterattacks against American troops in Saint-Lô, where 1500 American soldiers laid waste to Hitler’s tank and anti-aircraft branches. The American forces could surround and attack all the German soldiers and armored vehicles, thus laying ground for the ultimate allied strategy that would ultimately force the Germans to head back to their homeland.

By the last remaining days of July, the majority of the German’s tank divisions were made to head westward from the British tank strategy called Operation Goodwood. The allied forces used the absence of German tanks to open up a massive wound in the German’s entire military offensive. Operation Cobra as it was called, would open up a devastating air strike on the front line of the German army on the afternoon hours of July 25th. The US Army took advantage of the gaping hole in the German front line, and Eisenhower got his Army troops together and sped like a demon toward the French region of Avranches, where they blasted hell out of each the remaining German troops.General George Patton’s newly formed third Army joined in the progress. A massive American spearhead now threatened to drive into Brittany and, by a left turn, to encircle the Germans in Normandy from the rear.

That effort cause the last retreat of the Germans, and the American troops would cross the Seine River and finally liberate Paris during the month of August. The classic”Battle of the Bulge” are the last great battle of WWII, causing the Germans to surrender to the Allies in 1945.

The Normandy invasion was the primary plan of attack against the German war machine that signaled the last end to Hitler’s domination of Europe. Without the bravery and courage of each the military branches of the allied forces, Hitler’s devastation of the planet would have continued for many more years, and taken countless lives in the process.

“I have returned several times to honor the valiant men who died. . .every guy who set foot on Omaha Beach was a hero.” Lieutenant General Omar Bradley, Commander of the US First Army at the Normandy Invasion

Otto Von Bismark

Bismark, Pickelhaube, Prussia, Bismark

Prussia’s victory over Austria increased tensions with France. The French Emperor, Napoleon III, feared that a powerful Prussia would upset the balance of power in Europe. Bismarck, at the same time, sought war with France; he believed that if the German states perceived France as the aggressor, they would unite behind the King of Prussia.

A appropriate premise for war arose in 1870, when the German Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was offered the Spanish throne, which had been vacant since a revolution in 1868.

Bismarck then published the Ems Dispatch, a carefully edited version of a conversation between King Wilhelm and the French ambassador to Prussia. The publication was meant to provoke France into declaring war on Prussia. The Ems Dispatch had the desired effect. France mobilized and declared war, but was seen as the aggressor; as a result, German states, swept up by nationalism and patriotic zeal, rallied to Prussia’s side and supplied troops.

The Franco-Prussian War in 1870 was a terrific success for Prussia. The German army, commanded by Moltke, won victory after victory. The French were defeated in every battle. The remainder of the war featured quite careful German operations and massive confusion on the part of the French.

In the end, France was forced to pay a large indemnity and concede Alsace and part of Lorraine. Though Bismarck opposed the annexation, asserting it would be the”Achilles’ Heel” of this new empire, Moltke and his generals insisted that it was needed to keep France in a defensive position. He broke France’s supremacy over continental Europe following the Franco-Prussian war.

He carefully built the external safety of the new German Country upon his skillful diplomacy, which isolated France internationally and made a vast and complex system of alliances for mutual military support with the majority of Europe’s nations.

In the role of an’honest broker’, Bismarck was also successful in maintaining peace and stability in Europe by settling French political conflicts through negotiations. Essentially a careful politician, Bismarck never pursued an imperialistic course in Europe. In Africa however, Bismarck followed for a time a policy of imperial conquest, in a manner similar to the other European powers.

His most important tool in politics was his ability in the successful preparation of St. Cloud Wildlife Removal international developments.

Bismarck decided to act immediately to secure the unification of Germany after his victory over France. He opened negotiations with representatives of southern German states, offering special concessions if they would agree to unification. The negotiations were successful; King Wilhelm was crowned”German Emperor” on 18 January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors in the Chateau de Versailles for the additional humiliation of France.

SU-27

Su27, Aircraft, Ukraine, Fighter

Many countries in the world are turning to the Russian made Su27 from the current period as the fighter aircraft of choice for their military aviation. No, not even close, but realize that indeed it’s accessible to all countries as Russia doesn’t discriminate to hostile or rogue countries in their arms deals; you have the money, they got the airplanes and they’re building more. So, why is everybody buying these aircraft and what is it that makes it so good anyway?

Well the story of this SU-27 is similar to many of the fighters produced by Russia’s top aeronautical scientists from 1968 to 1975;

There have been several modifications and refinements and now it’s truly not a player anymore. The Su-27 was much in reaction to the F-15 and it was competing with the Mig 29 Fulcrum in Russia at that time also.

Interestingly enough in the long run the US won’t have pilots in their aircraft and with morphing wings, 18″G” UAVs and speed of light transmissions, goal identification and hypersonic speeds the conflicts will be over before they start. Greater range and Artificial Intelligence, laser shooting, the match will be over for a piloted aircraft interceptor.

That’s essentially the reality and really it’s only physics, simple things really, that’s where the US is at in tech?

You will need to select a lot better technology if you wish to be taken seriously. Like the SU-33 which China is purchasing 50 of. As as Venezuela talks of purchasing Mig 29s, that isn’t actually a threat to the USA.

Now bear in mind that Russian Lt. Gen. Igor Khvorov, the commander of Russian long-lived aviation spanned over the North Pole undetected to prove it’s something to sell China apart from only the Russian Su-33. A recent exercise included 70 Tu-160, Tu-95 and Tu-22M3 bombers, which test-fired 18 cruise missiles and a few of those bombers crossed the Arctic Ocean and flew over the North Pole and reached Alaska, while others crossed the Aleutian Islands and Japan’s western shore without entering any nation’s airspace. If you wish to frighten people, you want to use different aircraft and much more plausible scenarios, Still Overall, USA is a good deal better than you think with micro-tethered satellites and getting into the kill zone of a battle group or US controlled airspace? Well you’re really going to need to work on it or you’re toast you see? Perhaps of interest in thinking about the Su-27 and Russian military aircraft available to the highest bidder in 2007.

The Tomcat

Military Jet, Flight, Flying, F-14

The United States Navy has Officially retired the Grumman F-14 Tomcat. I found that while watching a TV news channel in Los Angeles. The service took place at Miramar which is located close to San Diego. Many Americans equate the F14 to the film,”Top Gun”. When you mention to someone you spent many years in the Navy working on F14’s, they usually say something about the film. It’s always interesting to talk to someone who does not know it up close and personal. I never flew the airplane, but I understood how keep it combat ready for the fleet. I spent six years in the Navy as an F-14 Radar technician. I spent another 7 years working for the Navy as a civilian “Tech Rep”. At that time, the USS Forrestal was at sea in the Mediterranean, so this required a trip to the boat while at sea. So, when I overhear someone talking about the F-14 Tomcat in Naval Aviation, I take some private understanding.

My first experience with the aircraft was in 1977. At the time, I was a 19 year old sailor from St. Louis and I’d only seen a few still pictures of it in magazines before my arrival at NAS Miramar, California. The F-14’s were replacing the old Navy F-4 Phantoms in 1977 and the Tomcats seemed to be something from a science fiction book. At the time, I had tribulations on learning how to master its complexity. My specialty was in the AN/AWG-9 Radar which was the most effective airborne radar ever mounted into a supersonic fighter. The radar was exceptional in its main function to shoot down small low flying high speed cruise missiles skimming the ocean surface and also MIG 25’s flying at MACH 3 up at 80,000 feet. After spending almost two years in Navy technical colleges, I was deemed worthy to work on the complex F-14 radar system. At the time, the aircraft proved to be a truly revolutionary upgrade to Naval Aviation. Even to this day, some of its unique capabilities are still unmatched.

My family has a history of being involved with United States fighters. He spent years as an aggressor pilot instructing pilots dog fighting skills. My brother retired as a USAF Radar Technician and worked on the F-106, F-4, F16 and F-15. So, being the sole Navy man in the household, I get a great deal of ribbing when I speak of the F-14 as being the true top gun. When they say the F15 and F16 are better in close in combat, I say it depends on the pilot as much as the machine. But more importantly, if your job is to take off and destroy an enemy aircraft, you’re not going to fight a good fight. You are going to use whatever benefit you need to kill him before he kills you.

The F-14 can out gun others by using its superior radar, so the Navy has eyes on target first. The F-14 could detect an airborne treat at much longer range than any other airborne fighter. The F-14D Tomcat could also fly at supersonic speed without lighting up it is afterburner for supersonic cruise. The Naval Aviators called it, “Super Cruise”. And the Navy can shoot first using their long range AIM-54 Phoenix missiles. The USAF currently utilizes the new AIM-120 AMRAAM missile which is an outstanding air to air missile, but it’s less than half the assortment of the AIM-54. This implies the Navy fighter pilot can shoot his missiles at longer range and still succeed. When the missile gets within close range of the target, it uses its active onboard radar to steer to final effects. Throughout live firing missile exercises, the kill rate of the AIM-54 exceeded 90 percent that’s outstanding. The AIM-120 uses this same concept and this technology has been carried over from our experience with the AIM-54. The F-14 Tomcat is the only fighter to use the long range AIM-54.

The only AIM-54 ever used in combat was by the IAF (Iranian Air Force) which purchased 100 F-14 Tomcats in the mid 70’s. Iranian airspace has been violated by high flying MIG 25’s flying at Mach 3. For this reason, Iran chose the F-14 Tomcat to protect their airspace. Once their F-14 aircraft downed an unmanned high rate Russian Dot aircraft, the flights over from Russia stopped. Throughout the Iraq / Iran war, they effectively utilized their AIM-54 missiles to destroy their opposing force. Unofficial kills using their limited number of missiles go as large as 40. We will probably never know the specific amount, but Iran continues to fly their Tomcats.

The USAF and USN practice their combats skills over the Nevada desert in an exercise called,”Red Flag”. It is one of the most realistic combat simulations anywhere on earth. Air Forces all over the world come to these exercises to hone their battle skills. On a single deployment, I was told that the navy F-14 crews weren’t permitted to use their aerial radar beyond the battle area because this could give them an advantage. Typically, 1 F-14 would sweep a section of the sky to look for enemy targets. This aircraft would share its data with other patrolling F-14’s without turning on their radars. This discrete information sharing would keep the enemy guessing as to their true location. This tactic wouldn’t give away their location since it was not required to turn on their unique radars.

As far as one on one combat between fighter USAF and USN pilots, I can’t speak for them. But I do know that a World War II ace and test pilot Chuck Yeager wrote about what makes a good pilot. He said first you should have excellent eyesight since the first to detect another at long range has the advantage in combat. But he also said that he was a good pilot since he had a good deal of flying experience. I deployed to the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise in 1977 and spent the next four decades and three months onboard. The 1 thing that really amazed me was how aircraft could land at night on a slick flight deck that was pitching up and down and from side to side. I am not saying Navy pilots are better, but they are very experienced and good at what they do. If I had a few MIG fighters inbound with hostile intent, I would feel really comfortable knowing among our F-14’s was patrolling over the horizon. I took a picture of an F-14 cockpit that had five red stars painting on it from squadron VF-2. I slept at ease on the ship knowing we’d experienced crews protecting our aircraft carrier at sea.

During the first Gulf war, the F-14’s were restricted from flying fighter cover over the Iraqi territory with the maximum concentration of MIG fighters. The majority of the tomcats were confined to remain over water close to the carriers for air cover. When the Iraqi Air Force chose to fly all of their remaining fighters to Iran, the coalition Air Forces had nothing in place that could shoot them down. Because of this, the Iranian Air Force currently has an extra 50 to 100 fighters. Iran fought a long hard war with Iraq and I doubt if they ever let them fly back after the war ceased. It would have been a gorgeous sight to see dozens of AIM-54’s from the sky shrieking in their goals at Mach 4 because they attempted to escape to Iran.

The USAF now has a wonderful new stealth fighter, the Lockheed Martin”F/A-22 Raptor”. This airplane will dominate the airspace of any enemy. Its full capabilities continue to be somewhat classified, but it is a really revolutionary fighter for the 21st Century. I’ve never seen it fly, but I will attend the open house at Edwards AFB this weekend and watch the airborne flight demo of the F/A-22. The Tomcat supplied the United States Navy with a proud history. I am sure the F/A-22 will do the same for the USAF in another 30.

To summarize, I didn’t write this article to stir any animosity between the USAF and USN fighter community. Each service has a proud history and will continue to have pilots which are truly,”The Best of the Best”. I have the utmost respect for the women and men who serve our nation, especially in the difficult war we are faced with today. God bless them all and may they all come home safely when their tours of duty are finished.

The 345th Bomb Group

Nose Gun, Bombardier, Cockpit, B-25

I have always viewed my father as my hero for many reasons. I respect his devotion to his loved ones, his professional career in education, as my own personal role model and for his combat record during World War II. I have never met another man with more integrity with his spoken word. During my youth he instilled a sense of duty and patriotism in his seven children. His three sons have served in active duty units in the army, two are retired United States Air Force, I myself served in Naval Aviation.

Whenever someone would ask my father what he did during the war, he would tell them. But he never seemed to dwell on it. What he did was an important part of his life, but it was only 1 portion. I did not start to appreciate his battle record until I arrived in the Philippine Islands in 1978 onboard the Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise. During one port visit, I managed to visit my brother who was stationed at Clark Air Force Base that was a very short drive from my port of call, Subic Bay.

My brother and I spoke about what it must have been like for our Dad during the war. I didn’t know it at the time, but he flew from an air field near Subic Bay. He also completed his combat tour by flying 48 combat missions. He flew combat missions as a B-25 radio / gunner against Japanese targets in the Philippines, Formosa and also French Indochina.

Up to now, I’ve only been able to find two books that correctly describe in sharp detail what the 345th Bomb Group did in the South Pacific. 1 book was written by one of the combat pilots, Peppy Blount. My wife managed to discover this book on eBay and it was my favorite Christmas gift. I tried to locate the publication,”We Band of Brothers”, but without success, but she managed to find it and I have since loaned it to my Dad. Another book was written by Lawrence J Hickey,”Warpath across the Pacific”. Mr. Hickey spent many years of detailed research and the book is truly outstanding.

I met one of my Dad’s combat friends who served with him. The thing that stunned me is how small my Dad was on what he experienced. Their B-25 bombers flew low level strafing and skip bombing runs with the B-25 twin engine medium bomber. The aircraft had their bombardier compartment removed in the nose and it was replaced by fixed .50 caliber machine guns. All of their missions were flown at extreme low elevation. My Dad’s job was delegated as a B-25 radio operator / gunner. The bombs had delayed fuses in order to reduce damage to their aircraft. Some aircraft would return with dents from bombs which bounced back hitting the underbody of the airplane. Additionally, they could carry four 500lb bombs .

My Dad was grounded for a single mission and his crew was shot down near Clark Air Force Base. His crew survived the crash, but they were not able to escape due to their injuries. The only crewmember to return alive was that the man who replaced him for the mission. The rest were murdered by Japanese troops who killed them immediately. After Dad finished his combat missions, he returned to the USA. The previous crew he flew with were shot down and killed a short time later.

I have often wondered why the 345th Bomb Group had so little press coverage after the war. It was a really common practice for battle war correspondents to fly combat missions for documentary purposes. I honestly believe that one of the reasons was due to the loss of aircraft shot down as soon as the war correspondents flew with them in combat. A total of eight war correspondents / photographers were murdered on combat flights.

In 26 months of combat, the 345th flew 58,562 combat hours on 9120 attack sorties, dropped over 58,000 bombs with a total weight of 6340 heaps, and fired over 12.5 million rounds of ammunition. Intelligence credited their unit with sinking 260 enemy vessels, totaling nearly 190,000 tons, and damaging 275 others. It was also awarded credit for ruining 260 Japanese airplanes on the ground and another 107 in aerial combat. Its units won Distinguished Unit Citations for four missions and the Group was awarded the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. This record cost the Air Apaches, 712 dead from all causes, including 580 killed on flights, and 177 aircraft.

I took my parents to an air show at Langley Air Force Base several years ago and they enjoyed the show. But when we passed an A-10 ground attack airplane on static display, we could not help notice how the A-10 and B-25 had a similar function in combat. They fly within gun range at low elevation to strafe enemy targets.

In conclusion, I hope this article will give you a little insight to the assignment that was assigned to the 345th Bomb Group, 5th Air Force during World War II. I hope you enjoyed this report. My parents do not have internet access, but I will print this out and send it via the mail. I’m sure they will enjoy it. If you like the guide, please pass it along to your friends and have a wonderful day!

P-3 Mission Gone Wong

Airplane, Plane, Military, Navy

We all recall the P-3 Orion Spy Mission over Chinese Waters and both Chinese Fighters intercepted it and you actually crashed to the P-3 and the Chinese Pilot, hot dog type ejected and was lost at sea. The P-3 was severely damaged but it is a tough bird. Luckily the team destroyed most of the electronics on board and scuttled the aircraft before its escorted landing at a Chinese Military airfield.

This was what the papers reported and that’s what occurred although there are some conspiracy theories still flying around about different rumors created by the underground cults and late night call-ins on the Art Bell Radio Show. Of course I have heard all those stories on the air and just laugh. Why well because that isn’t the story I heard in Bar Harbor, WA Starbucks talking to a AE-6 Pilots, who knew most of that P-3 Crew. They all confirmed the news reports and that’s just what happened in China that day.

Some have asked why the Capitan of the P-3 Aircraft did not go to 200 feet off the deck and slow it down to 140 knots and simply fly away from the area. Scramble more aircraft outside? It’s not going to happen. Nonetheless, the Chinese got a bunch of butchered up gear and erased equipment and sabotaged gear? Well good for them, they could sell it at a garage sale I guess? Consider all this in 2006.